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El mercat únic europeu fa 30 anys

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Aquest any, la UE celebra el 30th aniversari del seu mercat únic – un dels grans èxits de la integració europea i un dels seus motors clau. Creat l'1 de gener de 1993, el Mercat Únic Europeu permet que béns, serveis, persones i capital es circulin lliurement per la UE, facilitant la vida a les persones i obrint noves oportunitats a les empreses.

Over 30 years, the Single Market has led to an unprecedented market integration between member states’ economies, serving as a driver for growth and competitiveness and supporting Europe’s economic and political power at a global level. It also played a key role in accelerating the economic development of new member states that joined the EU, removing barriers to entry and boosting growth.

More recently, the Single Market has been essential in helping Europe to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic and the energy crisis resulting from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Preserving and strengthening the integrity of the Single Market will remain essential to allow Europe to respond to new challenges in a coordinated way and continue supporting the competitiveness of European economies.

Gràcies al mercat únic, la UE ha estat capaç de millorar la vida de tots els europeus, incloent-hi: 

  • Accelerar la transició cap a una economia més verda i digital: El Acord Verd Europeu is the growth strategy of the EU. Based on the EU’s Apte per a 55 i Dècada Digital proposals, the EU is putting in place a regulatory framework to underpin Europe’s green and digital transitions. The Industrial Strategy is accompanying the EU industry in these transitions. The Single Market also helps ensure the continued availability of essential inputs for our businesses, including of critical raw materials and advanced technologies like semiconductors.
  • Garantint una alta seguretat i estàndards tecnològics líders mundials: EU legislation allows consumers to trust that all products on the Single Market are safe and based on high standards of environmental, labour, personal data and human rights protection. These rules and standards are often taken up around the world, giving Europe’s businesses a competitive edge and boosting Europe’s global standing, while encouraging a race to the top in terms of standards. Today, the EU is a global standards-setter.
  • Resposta a les crisis recents amb una rapidesa i determinació sense precedents: Addressing recent crises like the COVID-19 pandemic and the current energy crisis relies on a common and coordinated European approach. During COVID-19, keeping internal borders open and ensuring the smooth functioning of the Single Market allowed vaccines, medical equipment and other critical materials to reach those in need. Today, Europe’s response to the energy crisis is based on the REPowerEU plan, which relies on the power of the Single Market for the EU to jointly procure more diversified energy sources and significantly accelerate the development and deployment of clean and renewable energy. This has already resulted in reducing the EU’s dependence on Russian fossil fuels.

To ensure that the Single Market remains a common good that delivers for all people in the EU, the Commission continuously works on its development in new areas and ensures that the rules which are already in place work in practice. For this purpose, the Commission works closely with member states’ public authorities who share the responsibility for the effective enforcement of Single Market rules. 

El desembre de 2022, durant l'inici de la sèrie d'actes amb motiu del 30th aniversari del Mercat Únic, la Comissió va presentar un paper analític sobre l'estat del mercat únic 30 anys després de la seva creació i el seu paper com a motor de la resiliència de la UE. Durant el 2023, hi haurà nombrosos debats, exposicions i campanyes coorganitzades amb les parts interessades de tota la UE per promoure els èxits del Mercat Únic i involucrar els ciutadans a debatre sobre el seu futur. En aquest context, la Comissió publicarà una Comunicació on es mostren els èxits i els beneficis significatius del mercat únic, alhora que s'identifiquen les llacunes d'aplicació i les prioritats futures perquè el mercat únic continuï jugant un paper clau.

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El Mercat Únic es va establir l'1 de gener de 1993. Després de la signatura del Tractat de Maastricht el 7 de febrer de 1992. Inicialment, 12 països de la UE formaven el Mercat Únic: Bèlgica, Dinamarca, Alemanya, Irlanda, Grècia, Espanya, França, Itàlia, Luxemburg, els Països Baixos, Portugal i el Regne Unit. Actualment, el mercat únic està format per 27 estats membres, a més d'Islàndia, Liechtenstein i Noruega, i Suïssa té accés parcial.

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The Single Market is the world’s largest trading bloc. It has for thirty years been the fundament of the EU. It provides opportunities for millions of businesses as well as for consumers in Europe. The past two years has shown us that Europe’s ability to absorb shocks and overcome crises, relies on a strong Single Market. That why we have proposed a Single Market Emergency Instrument to be able to take action together. To ensure that it also works in times of crisis.Margrethe Vestager, Executive Vice-President for a Europe Fit for the Digital Age – 01/01/2023

The Single Market is much more than just a legal framework – or indeed a market. We need to continuously preserve, improve and re-invent this formidable asset. First, by ensuring that the rules we have agreed collectively are also applied collectively. Second, by putting SMEs at the centre of Europe’s competitiveness. Third, by ensuring that people and businesses have access to the goods and services they need, when they need them. The Single Market gave the European Union a continental scale and therefore the capacity to project itself onto the global stage. Today, in its 30th anniversary, the Single Market gives me confidence and determination to face the challenges ahead.Thierry Breton, Commissioner for Internal Market – 01/01/2023

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